|Authors||L. Jiang, S. Xie, S. Maharjan and Y. Zhang|
|Title||oint Transaction Relaying and Block Verification Optimization for Blockchain Empowered D2D Communication|
|Project(s)||Simula Metropolitan Center for Digital Engineering, The Center for Resilient Networks and Applications|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology|
|Pagination||828 - 841|
Device to device (D2D) communication is a promising paradigm to support data sharing in the fifth generation (5G) small cell networks. However, D2D communication is more vulnerable to security and privacy threats due to direct wireless connection between the proximity devices. In this paper, we exploit blockchain technology to propose a new distributed and secure data sharing framework named D2D blockchain, where we deploy a set of Access Points (APs) to verify end users' transactions. Besides, in order to enable the end users to receive the required data on time in the D2D blockchain, we propose two new schemes for the transaction confirmation procedure including a relay-assisted transaction relaying scheme and a Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS) based lightweight block verification scheme. Furthermore, to incentivize the relay devices to help in relaying transactions in congested areas, and to encourage the verifiers to contribute their resources in block verification, we design a two-stage contract theory based joint optimization scheme. To measure the quality of the relayed transaction and the verified block, we formulate two models: value of transaction relaying (VoTR) and value of block verification (VoBV), and then design the optimal contract for each relay device and each verifier. Security analysis and numerical results illustrate that the proposed D2D blockchain and the designed joint optimization scheme are secure and efficient for data sharing among end users.