AuthorsG. Caso, Ö. Alay, L. De Nardis, A. Brunström, M. Neri and M. Di Benedetto
TitleEmpirical Models for NB-IoT Path Loss in an Urban Scenario
AfilliationCommunication Systems
Project(s)Department of Mobile Systems and Analytics
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Publisher IEEE
KeywordsCellular Internet of Things, massive Machine Type Communications, Narrowband Internet of Things, Path Loss Empirical Models

The lack of publicly available large scale measure- ments has hindered the derivation of empirical path loss (PL) models for Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT). Therefore, simulation-based investigations currently rely on models con- ceived for other cellular technologies, which are characterized, however, by different available bandwidth, carrier frequency, and infrastructure deployment, among others. In this paper, we take advantage of data from a large scale measurement campaign in the city of Oslo, Norway, to provide the first empirical characterization of NB-IoT PL in an urban scenario. For the PL average term, we characterize Alpha-Beta-Gamma (ABG) and Close-In (CI) models. By analyzing multiple NB- IoT cells, we propose a statistical PL characterization, i.e., the model parameters are not set to a single, constant value across cells, but are randomly extracted from well-known distributions. Similarly, we define the PL shadowing distribution, correlation over distance, and inter-site correlation. Finally, we give initial insights on outdoor-to-indoor propagation, using measurements up to deep indoor scenarios. The proposed models improve PL estimation accuracy compared to the ones currently adopted in NB-IoT investigations, enabling more realistic simulations of urban scenarios similar to the sites covered by our measurements. 

Citation Key27792

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