|Authors||A. Sharif and D. Marijan|
|Title||Evaluating the Robustness of Deep Reinforcement Learning for Autonomous Policies in a Multi-agent Urban Driving Environment|
|Afilliation||Software Engineering, Machine Learning|
|Publication Type||Proceedings, refereed|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Conference Name||22nd IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security (QRS)|
|Keywords||autonomous cars, autonomous driving, deep reinforcement learning, multi-agent systems, testing autonomous driving|
Background: Deep reinforcement learning is actively used for training autonomous car policies in a simulated driving environment. Due to the large availability of various reinforcement learning algorithms and the lack of their systematic comparison across different driving scenarios, we are unsure of which ones are more effective for training autonomous car software in single-agent as well as multi-agent driving environments. Aims: A benchmarking framework for the comparison of deep reinforcement learning in a vision-based autonomous driving will open up the possibilities for training better autonomous car driving policies. Method: To address these challenges, we provide an open and reusable benchmarking framework for systematic evaluation and comparative analysis of deep reinforcement learning algorithms for autonomous driving in a single- and multi-agent environment. Using the framework, we perform a comparative study of four discrete and two continuous action space deep reinforcement learning algorithms. We also propose a comprehensive multi-objective reward function designed for the evaluation of deep reinforcement learning-based autonomous driving agents. We run the experiments in a vision-only high-fidelity urban driving simulated environments. Results: The results indicate that only some of the deep reinforcement learning algorithms perform consistently better across single and multi-agent scenarios when trained in various multi-agent-only environment settings. For example, A3C- and TD3-based autonomous cars perform comparatively better in terms of more robust actions and minimal driving errors in both single and multi-agent scenarios. Conclusions: We conclude that different deep reinforcement learning algorithms exhibit different driving and testing performance in different scenarios, which underlines the need for their systematic comparative analysis. The benchmarking framework proposed in this paper facilitates such a comparison.