|Title||Security Modeling of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study of Smart Grid|
|Project(s)||MBT4CPS: Model-Based Testing For Cyber-Physical Systems|
|Publication Type||Master's thesis|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Degree awarding institution||University Of Oslo|
With the progress of the digital age, Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs), which are the integration of physical and computational world, are becoming more popular. Security of CPSs is important, as well and it should be considered. Because if the security is not considered, it can lead to some problems such as attackers can cause city blackouts. However, CPSs are often very complex systems and making sure of their security is very challenging. CPSs can be found in many key areas such as transportation, healthcare, and energy. One of the great instances of CPSs is smart grids. Smart grids generate the electricity power and transmit the power to different category of customers. One of the basic parts of smart grid systems is advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). Smart meter is another basic part of smart grid, which measures the power consumption. The goal of this thesis is first to model the basic functionalities of AMI system, then to model security aspects and requirements of AMI system to address security threats and challenges. We will also model some security-related uncertainties of AMI system. Modeling could help capturing the uncertainties in CPSs that might have huge impacts in people’s lives and economic state of the society.
At a high-level, the contributions of this thesis are: 1) Modeling core functionalities of AMI system. We need to understand what the main functionalities of AMI system are. We specified and modeled three important cases of AMI system’s core functionalities. These are: a) Periodic meter reading; b) Remote meter connect/disconnect; c) On-demand meter reading. 2) Modeling security aspects of AMI system or requirements. There are some security requirements for AMI system. The main requirements are Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. We address these security requirements by designing some security mechanisms such as Authentication, Authorization and Encryption/Decryption. 3) Modeling some security-related uncertainties of AMI system. There are some uncertainties in the functionalities of AMI system that can lead to vulnerabilities.
The main methodology used in this thesis to model core functionalities of AMI system, its security aspects and uncertainty is Unified Modeling Language (UML). There are different diagrams in UML. The main diagrams, which we use in this thesis to do modeling are use case diagrams, class diagrams, sequence diagrams and state chart diagrams. We use IBM RSA (Rational Software Architect) tool to model UML diagrams.
Finally, we conclude the thesis and we propose the future work that can be done in the area of AMI system’s security and uncertainty in specific and CPSs in general.