AuthorsC. S. R. Drejer, M. Riegler, M. S. Johnson, P. Halvorsen and G. A. Baugerud
TitleLive Streaming Technology and Online Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse - A Scoping Review
AfilliationCommunication Systems, Machine Learning
Project(s)Department of Holistic Systems
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
JournalTrauma, Violence, & Abuse
Publisher SAGE Publications

Livestreaming of child sexual abuse is an established form of online child sexual exploitation
and abuse. However, only a limited body of research has examined this issue. The Covid-19
pandemic has accelerated internet use and user knowledge of livestreaming services
emphasising the importance of understanding this crime. In this scoping review, existing
literature was brought together through an iterative search of eight databases containing peer-
reviewed journal articles, as well as grey literature. Records were eligible for inclusion if the
primary focus was on livestream technology and online child sexual exploitation and abuse,
the child being defined as eighteen years or younger. Fourteen of the 2,218 records were
selected. The data were charted and divided into four categories: victims, offenders,
legislation, and technology. Limited research, differences in terminology, study design, and
population inclusion criteria present a challenge to drawing general conclusions on the
current state of livestreaming of child sexual abuse. The records show that victims are
predominantly female. The average livestream offender was found to be older than the
average online child sexual abuse offender. Therefore, it is unclear whether the findings are
representative of the global population of livestream offenders. Furthermore, there appears to
be a gap in what the records show on platforms and payment services used and current digital
trends. The lack of a legal definition and privacy considerations pose a challenge to
investigation, detection, and prosecution. The available data allow some insights into a
potentially much larger issue.

Citation Key42995